Post-GWAS methodologies for localisation of functional non-coding variants: ANGPTL3

Federico Oldoni, Jutta Palmen, Claudia Giambartolomei, Philip Howard, Fotios Drenos, Vincent Plagnol, Steve E. Humphries, Philippa J. Talmud, Andrew J P Smith*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
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Genome-wide association studies have confirmed the involvement of non-coding angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) gene variants with coronary artery disease, levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and ANGPTL3 mRNA transcript. Extensive linkage disequilibrium at the locus, however, has hindered efforts to identify the potential functional variants. Using regulatory annotations from ENCODE, combined with functional in vivo assays such as allele-specific formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements, statistical approaches including eQTL/lipid colocalisation, and traditional in vitro methodologies including electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assays, variants affecting the ANGPTL3 regulome were examined. From 253 variants associated with ANGPTL3 mRNA expression, and/or lipid traits, 46 were located within liver regulatory elements and potentially functional. One variant, rs10889352, demonstrated allele-specific effects on DNA-protein interactions, reporter gene expression and chromatin accessibility, in line with effects on LDL-C levels and expression of ANGPTL3 mRNA. The ANGPTL3 gene lies within DOCK7, although the variant is within non-coding regions outside of ANGPTL3, within DOCK7, suggesting complex long-range regulatory effects on gene expression. This study illustrates the power of combining multiple genome-wide datasets with laboratory data to localise functional non-coding variation and provides a model for analysis of regulatory variants from GWAS.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-201
Number of pages9
Early online date12 Dec 2015
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2016


  • Polymorphism
  • Regulation
  • Chromatin
  • Genome-wide
  • Functional polymorphism
  • LDL-C


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