Potential Reporting Bias in fMRI Studies of the Brain

Jen J Ware, Marcus R Munafo, Sean P David, Isabella M Chu, Pooja D Loftus, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Joaquim Radua, John P A Ioannidis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

76 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported multiple activation foci associated with a
variety of conditions, stimuli or tasks. However, most of these studies used fewer than 40 participants.
Methodology: After extracting data (number of subjects, condition studied, number of foci identified and threshold) from
94 brain fMRI meta-analyses (k = 1,788 unique datasets) published through December of 2011, we analyzed the correlation
between individual study sample sizes and number of significant foci reported. We also performed an analysis where we
evaluated each meta-analysis to test whether there was a correlation between the sample size of the meta-analysis and the
number of foci that it had identified. Correlation coefficients were then combined across all meta-analyses to obtain a
summary correlation coefficient with a fixed effects model and we combine correlation coefficients, using a Fisher’s z
Principal Findings: There was no correlation between sample size and the number of foci reported in single studies
(r = 0.0050) but there was a strong correlation between sample size and number of foci in meta-analyses (r = 0.62, p,0.001).
Only studies with sample sizes ,45 identified larger (.40) numbers of foci and claimed as many discovered foci as studies
with sample sizes $45, whereas meta-analyses yielded a limited number of foci relative to the yield that would be
anticipated from smaller single studies.
Conclusions: These results are consistent with possible reporting biases affecting small fMRI studies and suggest the need
to promote standardized large-scale evidence in this field. It may also be that small studies may be analyzed and reported in
ways that may generate a larger number of claimed foci or that small fMRI studies with inconclusive, null, or not very
promising results may not be published at all.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jul 2013

Structured keywords

  • Brain and Behaviour
  • Tobacco and Alcohol


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