Predicting Outcome in dogs with Primary Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia: Results of a Multicenter Case Registry

Robert A N Goggs, S G Dennis, Andrea Di Bella, Karen R Humm, Gerard McLauchlen, Carmel Mooney, Alison Ridyard, Simon Tappin, David Walker, Sheena M Warman, Nat Whitley, David Brodbelt, Daniel L Chan

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Outcome prediction in dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is challenging and few prognostic indicators have been consistently identified.


An online case registry was initiated to: prospectively survey canine IMHA presentation and management in the British Isles; evaluate 2 previously reported illness severity scores, Canine Hemolytic Anemia Score (CHAOS) and Tokyo and to identify independent prognostic markers.


Data from 276 dogs with primary IMHA across 10 referral centers were collected between 2008 and 2012.


Outcome prediction by previously reported illness-severity scores was tested using univariate logistic regression. Independent predictors of death in hospital or by 30-days after admission were identified using multivariable logistic regression.


Purebreds represented 89.1% dogs (n = 246). Immunosuppressive medications were administered to 88.4% dogs (n = 244), 76.1% (n = 210) received antithrombotics and 74.3% (n = 205) received packed red blood cells. Seventy-four per cent of dogs (n = 205) were discharged from hospital and 67.7% (n = 187) were alive 30-days after admission. Two dogs were lost to follow-up at 30-days. In univariate analyses CHAOS was associated with death in hospital and death within 30-days. Tokyo score was not associated with either outcome measure. A model containing SIRS-classification, ASA classification, ALT, bilirubin, urea and creatinine predicting outcome at discharge was accurate in 82% of cases. ASA classification, bilirubin, urea and creatinine were independently associated with death in hospital or by 30-days.

Conclusions and clinical importance

Markers of kidney function, bilirubin concentration and ASA classification are independently associated with outcome in dogs with IMHA. Validation of this score in an unrelated population is now warranted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1603-1610
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Issue number6
Early online date16 Oct 2015
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2015


  • Canine hemolytic anemia objective score
  • Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia
  • Survival
  • Thromboembolism

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