Early glycemic control is associated with reduced future vascular complications risk in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to systematically review evidence on the predictors of glycemic control within 12 months of diagnosis of childhood onset T1D. Inclusion criteria for the electronic search were: interventional and observational studies that assessed and quantified an association between the predictor and glycemic control within 12 months of diagnosis of childhood onset T1D. A total of 17 915 articles were identified from 6 databases and 20 studies were finally included in the analysis. Harvest plots and narrative synthesis were used to summarize data from intervention (n = 0), prospective/retrospective cohort (n = 15), and cross-sectional (n = 5) studies. Significant predictors of poorer glycemic control 0 to 3 months after diagnosis were older age and female gender. Non-white ethnicity, diabetes autoantibody positivity, measures of deprivation, and non-private health insurance were potential predictors. Predictors of poorer glycemic control 4 to 12 months after diagnosis were: older age, non-white ethnicity, a single parent family, high hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels at diagnosis, longer T1D duration, and non-intensive insulin therapy. Potential predictors included: family with health issues, clinical factors, and comorbidities at diagnosis. Most significant predictors of poor glycemic control within 12 months of diagnosis of childhood onset T1D are non-modifiable. These factors need to be recognized and addressed through individualized and multidisciplinary diabetes care. Further research is required to confirm the association of potential predictors with early glycemic control.
Bibliographical note© 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood
- Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism
- Risk Factors