Protruding nanostructured surfaces have gained increasing interest due to their unique wetting behaviours and more recently their antimicrobial and osteogenic properties. Rapid development in nanofabrication techniques that offer high throughput and versatility on titanium substrate open up the possibility for better orthopaedic and dental implants that deter bacterial colonisation while promoting osteointegration. In this review we present a brief overview of current problems associated with bacterial infection of titanium implants and of efforts to fabricate titanium implants that have both bactericidal and osteogenic properties. All of the proposed mechano-bactericidal mechanisms of protruding nanostructured surfaces are then considered so as to explore the potential advantages and disadvantages of adopting such novel technologies for use in future implant applications. Different nanofabrication methods that can be utilised to fabricate such nanostructured surfaces on titanium substrate are briefly discussed.
- nanostructured surfaces
- medical implants