Publication and other reporting biases in cognitive sciences: Detection, prevalence, and prevention

John P A Ioannidis*, Marcus R. Munafò, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Brian A. Nosek, Sean P. David

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

202 Citations (Scopus)


Recent systematic reviews and empirical evaluations of the cognitive sciences literature suggest that publication and other reporting biases are prevalent across diverse domains of cognitive science. In this review, we summarize the various forms of publication and reporting biases and other questionable research practices, and overview the available methods for probing into their existence. We discuss the available empirical evidence for the presence of such biases across the neuroimaging, animal, other preclinical, psychological, clinical trials, and genetics literature in the cognitive sciences. We also highlight emerging solutions (from study design to data analyses and reporting) to prevent bias and improve the fidelity in the field of cognitive science research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)235-241
Number of pages7
JournalTrends in Cognitive Sciences
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Structured keywords

  • Brain and Behaviour
  • Tobacco and Alcohol


  • Bias
  • Cognitive sciences
  • Neuroscience
  • Publication bias
  • Reporting bias

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  • Projects

    MRC UoB UNITE Unit - Programme 6

    Munafo, M. R. & Munafo, M. R.


    Project: Research

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