Purkinje cell injury, structural plasticity and fusion in patients with Friedreich's ataxia

Kevin Kemp, Amelia Cook, Juliana Redondo, Kathreena Kurian, Neil Scolding, Alastair Wilkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
353 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Purkinje cell pathology is a common finding in a range of inherited and acquired cerebellar disorders, with the degree of Purkinje cell injury dependent on the underlying aetiology. Purkinje cells have an unparalleled resistance to insult and display unique regenerative capabilities within the central nervous system. Their response to cell injury is not typical of most neurons and likely represents both degenerative, compensatory and regenerative mechanisms. Here we present a pathological study showing novel and fundamental insights into Purkinje cell injury, remodelling and repair in Friedreich’s ataxia; the most common inherited ataxia. Analysing post-mortem cerebellum tissue from patients who had Friedreich's ataxia, we provide evidence of significant injury to the Purkinje cell axonal compartment with relative preservation of both the perikaryon and its extensive dendritic arborisation. Axonal remodelling of Purkinje cells was clearly elevated in the disease. For the first time in a genetic condition, we have also shown a disease-related increase in the frequency of Purkinje cell fusion and heterokaryon formation in Friedreich's ataxia cases; with evidence that underlying levels of cerebellar inflammation influence heterokaryon formation. Our results together further demonstrate the Purkinje cell’s unique plasticity and regenerative potential. Elucidating the biological mechanisms behind these phenomena could have significant clinical implications for manipulating neuronal repair in response to neurological injury.
Original languageEnglish
Article number53
Number of pages15
JournalActa Neuropathologica Communications
Volume4
Issue number53
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 May 2016

Keywords

  • Friedreich’s ataxia
  • Purkinje cell
  • Cerebellum
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Fusion
  • Heterokaryon

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