Quantum-dot spin in an optical microcavity for quantum information technology

C.Y. Hu, JG Rarity

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference Contribution (Conference Proceeding)

Abstract

The ultimate goal of quantum information science is to build quantum networks for distributed quantum computing or for the secure sharing of information between spatially remote parties [1]. Quantum networks utilize static (matter) quantum bits (qubits) to store and process quantum information at local nodes, and photons as flying qubits for long-distance quantum state transmission between different nodes. To realize a quantum network, it is crucial to achieve light-matter entanglement and reversible quantum-state transfer between light and matter, i.e., the light-matter quantum interface, and the quantum repeater for large-scale quantum communications [2]. Recent experiments have shown that both electrons and holes confined in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have long spin relaxation time (T1e, T1h ~ ms) and long spin coherence time (T2e ~ s, T2h > 100 ns). Moreover, fast spin cooling and ultra-fast spin manipulation as well as spin echoes to preserve the spin coherence have also been demonstrated. Undoubtedly these rapid progresses imply that the QD spin is a good candidate for matter qubit in quantum information processing. Furthermore, QD-based single photon sources have been also developed. Therefore, semiconductor QDs offer a good platform for solid-state quantum networking. Here we present two types of conditional quantum gates, i.e., the photon-spin entangling gates [3-4] using a single QD spin in a single-sided or double-sided optical microcavity. Both gates are universal and deterministic (if they are optimized). The spin-selective coherent photon-spin interaction enhanced by the cavity QED lead to giant circular birefringence, which allows us to build these gates. We will show some of the key applications [3-5], including: (i) single-shot quantum non-demolition measurement of spin; (ii) single-photon based spin manipulations and spin echoes to preserve the spin coherence; (iii) photon-spin, spin-spin and photon-photon entanglement generation with high fidelity and high efficiency; (iv) deterministic photon-spin interface and perfect spin memory; (v) complete and loss-resistant Bell-state analyzer, which could increase the distance of state-of-the-art quantum communications by one order of magnitude (from current 100 km to over 1000 km) [5]; (vi) the full quantum repeater combining quantum memory, entanglement swapping and purifications for arbitrary long distance communications [5]; (vii) spin-controlled single photon sources. All these schemes are feasible with current semiconductor technology [6], and we have recently seen conditional phase shifts in uncharged QD-cavity systems [7]. The versatile spin-cavity systems can be applied in all aspects of quantum information science and technology, not only for large-scale quantum communication networks, but also for scalable quantum computing with either photons or spins as qubits. References [1] H.J. Kimble, Nature (London) 453, 1023 (2008). [2] H.-J. Briegel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932 (1998). [3] C.Y. Hu et al., Phys. Rev. B 78, 085307 (2008); ibid. 78, 125318 (2008). [4] C.Y. Hu et al., Phys. Rev. B 80, 205326 (2009). [5] C.Y. Hu and J.G. Rarity, ArXiv: quant-ph 1005.5545 (2010). [6] S. Reitzenstein et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251109 (2007). [7] A.B. Young et al., ArXiv: quant-ph 1011.0384 (2010).
Translated title of the contributionQuantum-dot spin in an optical microcavity for quantum information technology
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication11th International Conference on Physics of Light-Matter Coupling in Nanostructures (PLMCN 11), April 4-8, Berlin
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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