Let B be the set of rooted trees containing an infinite binary subtree starting at the root. This set satisfies the metaproperty that a tree belongs to it if and only if its root has children u and v such that the subtrees rooted at u and v belong to it. Let p be the probability that a Galton-Watson tree falls in B. The metaproperty makes p satisfy a fixed-point equation, which can have multiple solutions. One of these solutions is p, but what is the meaning of the others? In particular, are they probabilities of the Galton-Watson tree falling into other sets satisfying the same metaproperty? We create a framework for posing questions of this sort, and we classify solutions to fixed-point equations according to whether they admit probabilistic interpretations. Our proofs use spine decompositions of Galton-Watson trees and the analysis of Boolean functions.
- tree automaton
- fixed point
- Galton-Watson tree
- recursive distributional equation