Adaptive video streaming is a key enabler for optimising the delivery of offline encoded video content. The research focus to date has been on optimisation, based solely on rate-quality curves. This paper adds an additional dimension, the energy expenditure, and explores construction of bitrate ladders based on decoding energy-quality curves rather than the conventional rate-quality curves. Pareto fronts are extracted from the rate-quality and energy-quality spaces to select optimal points. Bitrate ladders are constructed from these points using conventional rate-based rules together with a novel quality-based approach. Evaluation on a subset of YouTube-UGC videos encoded with x.265 shows that the energy-quality ladders reduce energy requirements by 28-31% on average at the cost of slightly higher bitrates. The results indicate that optimising based on energy-quality curves rather than rate-quality curves and using quality levels to create the rungs could potentially improve energy efficiency for a comparable quality of experience.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2024


  • eess.IV
  • cs.MM


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