In the last decade, great advances have been made in understanding the genetic basis for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Animal models using specific gene disruption of the slit diaphragm and cytoskeleton of the foot process mirror the etiology of the human disease. Many animal models have been developed to understand the complex pathophysiology of FSGS. Therefore, we need to know the usefulness and exact methodology of creating animal models. Here, we review classic animal models and newly developed genetic animal models. Classic animal models of FSGS involve direct podocyte injury and indirect podocyte injury due to adaptive responses. However, the phenotype depends on the animal background. Renal ablation and direct podocyte toxin (PAN, adriamycin) models are leading animal models for FSGS, which have some limitations depending on mice background. A second group of animal models were developed using combinations of genetic mutation and toxin, such as NEP25, diphtheria toxin, and Thy1.1 models, which specifically injure podocytes. A third group of animal models involves genetic engineering techniques targeting podocyte expression molecules, such as podocin, CD2-associated protein, and TRPC6 channels. More detailed information about podocytopathy and FSGS can be expected in the coming decade. Different animal models should be used to study FSGS depending on the specific aim and sometimes should be used in combination.
- Journal Article