AIMS: To evaluate retinal vasculature changes in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and whether the functional visual loss correlates with parameters obtained using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: OCT and OCTA images were collected from 116 POAG eyes and 40 normal eyes in a prospective, cross-sectional observational study. Glaucomatous eyes were further divided into three groups according to a Glaucoma Staging System. Measurements of macular vessel density, ganglion cell complex (GCC), and disc retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness were compared among groups.
RESULTS: The macular vessel density, GCC, and RNFL are significantly reduced in POAG compared to normal eyes that also corresponds to the severity of glaucoma (Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunnett's correction; p < 0.0001). Visual field mean deviation correlates significantly with macular vessel density (p = 0.0028, r = 0.3), GCC (p < 0.0001, r = 0.6), and RNFL (p = 0.008, r = 0.36) in POAG. There are significant correlations between GCC and RNFL (p < 0.0001, r = 0.76) as well as macular vessel density (p < 0.0001, r = 0.48). Increased age also correlates with reduced macular vessel density in both normal (p = 0.0002, r = 0.49) and glaucomatous eyes (p < 0.0001, r = 0.48), but a greater proportionate reduction of vessel density is seen in glaucomatous eyes.
CONCLUSION: Reduced macular vessel density occurs in POAG despite of age-related changes, which also correlates with reductions in RNFL and GCC measurements. OCTA can detect microstructural defects and offers potential to facilitate diagnosis of glaucoma.
- intraocular pressure
- field of vision
- optic nerve