Reducing the stress of drug administration: implications for the 3Rs

Sarah A. Stuart, Emma S J Robinson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)
358 Downloads (Pure)


Restraint in animals is known to cause stress but is used during almost all scientific procedures in rodents, representing a major welfare and scientific issue. Administration of substances, a key part of most scientific procedures, almost always involves physical restraint of the animal. In this study, we developed a method to inject substances to rats using a non-restrained technique. We then compared the physiological, behavioral and emotional impacts of restrained versus non-restrained injection procedures. Our results highlight the negative welfare implications associated with physical restraint and demonstrate a method which can be used to avoid this. Our work shows how adopting strategies that avoid restraint can minimize a widespread source of stress in laboratory animals and improve welfare through refinement.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14288
Number of pages7
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 23 Sep 2015

Bibliographical note

Date of Acceptance: 14/08/2015

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Reducing the stress of drug administration: implications for the 3Rs'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this