Primrose syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous missense variants within ZBTB20. Through an exome sequencing approach (as part of the Deciphering Developmental Disorders [DDD] study) we have identified five unrelated individuals with previously unreported, de novo ZBTB20 pathogenic missense variants. All five missense variants targeted the C2H2 zinc finger domains. This genotype-up approach has allowed further refinement of the Primrose syndrome phenotype. Major characteristics (>90% individuals) include an intellectual disability (most frequently in the moderate range), a recognizable facial appearance and brain MRI abnormalities, particularly abnormalities of the corpus callosum. Other frequent clinical associations (in 50–90% individuals) include sensorineural hearing loss (83%), hypotonia (78%), cryptorchidism in males (75%), macrocephaly (72%), behavioral issues (56%), and dysplastic/hypoplastic nails (57%). Based upon these clinical data we discuss our current management of patients with Primrose syndrome.
Bibliographical note© 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- DDD study
- exome sequencing
- intellectual disability
- Primrose syndrome