Relation between racial discrimination, social class, and health among ethnic minority groups

S Karlsen*, JY Nazroo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

450 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives. This study explored associations between racism, social class, and health among ethnic minority people in England and Wales.

Methods. We conducted a series of regression analyses on cross-sectional data from the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities to explore the relation between different indicators of racism and health and household occupational class.

Results. Marked independent associations existed between reported experience of racism and perceptions of Britain as a "racist society," household social class, age, sex, and various mental and physical health indicators. These associations showed reasonable consistency across the different ethnic groups,

Conclusions. The different ways in which racism may manifest itself (as interpersonal violence, institutional discrimination, or socioeconomic disadvantage) all have independent detrimental effects on health. regardless of the health indicator used.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)624-631
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Public Health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2002


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