Design and Methods: Data came from the British Regional Heart Study (4252 men aged 60-79 years) and the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (5804 men and women aged 70-82 years). Associations between outdoor temperature and CVD risk factors were quantified in each study and then pooled using a random effects model.
Results: With a 5°C lower mean temperature, total cholesterol was 0.04 mmol/L (95% confidence Intervals (CI) 0.02; 0.07) higher, LDL cholesterol was 0.02 mmol/L (95%CI 0.01; 0.05) higher and SBP was 1.12 mm Hg (95%CI 0.60,1.64) higher. Among novel CVD risk factors, C-reactive protein was 3.3% (95%CI 1.0; 5.6%) higher, Interleukin-6 was 2.7% (95%CI 1.1; 4.3%) higher, and Vitamin D was 11.2% (95%CI 1.0; 20.4%) lower.
Conclusions: Lower outdoor temperature was associated with adverse effects on cholesterol, blood pressure, circulating inflammatory markers, and Vitamin D in two older populations. Public health approaches to protect the elderly against low temperatures could help in reducing the levels of several CVD risk factors.
- outdoor temperature
- older adults
- cardiovascular disease risk factors