Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the variability in renal function markers in non-azotaemic and azotaemic cats, and also the rate of change in the markers. Methods: Plasma creatinine concentration and its reciprocal, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine specific gravity (USG) were studied as markers of renal function in client-owned cats. GFR was determined using a corrected slope-intercept iohexol clearance method. Renal function testing was performed at baseline and a second time point. The within-population variability (coefficient of variation; CV%) was determined at the baseline time point. Within-individual variability (CV%) and rate of change over time was determined from the repeated measurements. Results: Twenty-nine cats were included in the study, of which five had azotaemic chronic kidney disease. The within-individual variability (CV%) in creatinine concentration was lower in azotaemic cats than in non-azotaemic cats (6.81% vs 8.82%), whereas the within-individual variability in GFR was higher in azotaemic cats (28.94% vs 19.98%). The within-population variability was greatest for USG (67.86% in azotaemic cats and 38.00% in non-azotaemic cats). There was a negative rate of change in creatinine concentration in azotaemic and non-azotaemic cats (–0.0265 and –0.0344 µmol/l/day, respectively) and a positive rate of change of GFR in azotaemic and non-azotaemic cats (0.0062 and 0.0028 ml/min/day, respectively). Conclusions and relevance: The within-individual variability data suggest creatinine concentration to be the more useful marker for serial monitoring of renal function in azotaemic cats. In contrast, in non-azotaemic cats, GFR is a more useful marker for serial monitoring of renal function. The majority of cats with azotaemic CKD did not have an appreciable decline in renal function during the study.