38 Citations (Scopus)


A self-healing, high performance, carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite is demonstrated by embedding a Lewis-acid catalytic curing agent within a laminate, manufactured using out of autoclave (OOA) composite manufacturing methods. Two configurations of healing agent delivery, pre-mixed and autonomous mixing, are investigated via injection of a healing agent through bio-inspired microvascular channels exposed on Mode I fractured crack planes. Healing is effected when an epoxy resin-solvent healing agent mixture reaches the boundary of embedded solid-state scandium(III) triflate (Sc(OTf)3) catalyst, located on the crack plane, to initiate the ring-opening polymerisation (ROP) of epoxides. Tailored self-healing agents confer high healing efficiency values after multiple healing cycles (69–108%) to successfully mitigate against crack propagation within the composite microstructure.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115002-115017
Number of pages16
JournalSmart Materials and Structures
Issue number11
Early online date19 Sep 2014
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014


  • bio-inspired
  • fibre-reinforced
  • repeated healing
  • self-healing
  • triflate


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