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Response to the comment '"Phantom of the Opera?" or "Sex and the City"' by Thomas K. Bauer, Philipp Breidenbach, and Christoph M. Schmidt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Oliver Falck
  • Michael Fritsch
  • Stephan Heblich
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-100
Number of pages2
JournalLabour Economics
Early online date27 May 2015
DateAccepted/In press - 19 May 2015
DateE-pub ahead of print - 27 May 2015
DatePublished (current) - 1 Dec 2015


In our paper "The Phantom of the Opera," published in this journal in 2011, we introduce proximity to a baroque opera house location as an instrument for concentrations of high-skilled individuals today. In the second stage, we assess productive spillovers from these high-skilled individuals attracted by cultural amenities. Thomas K. Bauer, Philipp Breidenbach, and Christoph M. Schmidt challenge our identification strategy in their comment. In our response, we provide further arguments and empirical evidence for the unambiguous validity of our strategy.

    Research areas

  • Cultural amenities, High skilled workers, Location factor, Productive spillovers

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  • Response to the Comment

    Rights statement: This is the author accepted manuscript (AAM). The final published version (version of record) is available online via Elsevier at

    Accepted author manuscript, 248 KB, PDF document


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