Stroke is an important cause of childhood mortality and morbidity. The risk factors and pathophysiological processes of stroke in children are very different than those in adults. The range of risk factors is very wide, with over 100 presumptive risk factors described. There are a number of clinical guidelines, but despite recent increases in research, the evidence base underpinning these guidelines is sparse. Therefore, treatment is largely based upon expert consensus and extrapolation from adult data. Mortality from childhood stroke is relatively high and at least two-thirds of survivors have neurological impairments. Stroke can affect a wide range of neurocognitive domains and a high proportion of children require additional educational support and have a reduced quality of life.