Risk Factors for Avian Influenza H9 Infection of Chickens in Live Bird Retail Stalls of Lahore District, Pakistan 2009-2010

Mamoona Chaudhry*, Hamad B. Rashid, Angélique Angot, Michael Thrusfield, Barend M.Dec Bronsvoort, Ilaria Capua, Giovanni Cattoli, Susan C. Welburn, Mark C. Eisler

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
301 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

This study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with AIV infections in live bird retail stalls (LBRS) in Lahore District, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey of LBRS was conducted from December 2009-February 2010 using two-stage cluster sampling based on probability proportional to size. A total of 280 oropharyngeal swab sample pools were collected from 1400 birds in 8 clusters and tested by qRT-PCR for the matrix (M) gene of type A influenza virus and HA gene subtypes H9, H5 and H7. Thirty-four (34) samples were positive for the M gene, of which 28 were also positive for H9. No sample was found positive for H5 or H7. Data for 36 potential risk factors, collected by questionnaire, were analyzed by survey-weighted logistic regression and prevalence odds ratios (OR) for associated risk factors were calculated. A final multivariable model identified three risk factors for H9 infection in LRBS, namely obtaining birds from mixed sources (OR 2.28, CI95%: 1.4-3.7), keeping birds outside cages (OR 3.10, CI95%: 1.4-7.0) and keeping chicken breeds other than broilers (OR 6.27, CI95%: 1.7-23.2). Sourcing birds from dealers/wholesalers, keeping birds inside cages and avoiding mixing different breeds in cages could reduce the risk of H9 infections in LRBS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5634
Number of pages8
JournalScientific Reports
Volume8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Apr 2018

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