Robust multidimensional scaling

Ian Spence*, Stephan Lewandowsky

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


A method for multidimensional scaling that is highly resistant to the effects of outliers is described. To illustrate the efficacy of the procedure, some Monte Carlo simulation results are presented. The method is shown to perform well when outliers are present, even in relatively large numbers, and also to perform comparably to other approaches when no outliers are present.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)501-513
Number of pages13
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1989

Structured keywords

  • Memory


  • multidimensional scaling
  • outliers
  • robust estimation

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