This paper presents a robust scheduling scheme for energy storage systems (ESSs) deployed in distribution networks to facilitate high penetrations of renewable energy sources (RES). This scheme schedules the charging and discharging of an ESS cognizant of state-of-charge (SoC) limits, transmission line real time thermal ratings (RTTR), and voltage constraints. Robust optimization (RO) has been adopted to deal with the uncertainty of RES output, load, and RTTR. Two methods have been introduced to estimate the tradeoff between the cost and the probability of constraint violations. The proposed scheduling scheme is tested on the IEEE 14 and 118 busbar networks with real load, generation, and RTTR profiles through Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Test results show that the proposed scheme is able to minimize or curtail the probability of constraint violation to a desired level. In contrast, classical optimal power flow (OPF) approaches which do not consider uncertainty, when coupled with RTTR and ESS, result in a low PoS. At the same time, compared to conservative OPF approaches, the proposed scheme reduces the power and energy requirement of ESS.
- Energy storage system
- renewable energy sources
- robust optimization
- scheduling of energy storage systems