Role of smooth muscle cells in coronary artery bypass grafting failure

Kerry Wadey, Joshua Lopes, Michelle Bendeck, Sarah George

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)
225 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology of many cardiovascular diseases. The formation and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries results in angina and myocardial infarction. Venous coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) are designed to reduce the symptoms of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries by diverting blood flow around the atherosclerotic plaques. However, vein grafts suffer a high failure rate due to intimal thickening that occurs as a result of vascular cell injury and activation and can act as ‘a soil’ for subsequent atherosclerotic plaque formation. A clinically-proven method for the reduction of vein graft intimal thickening and subsequent major adverse clinical events is currently not available. Consequently, a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms of intimal thickening may be beneficial for the design of future therapies for vein graft failure. Vein grafting induces inflammation and endothelial cell damage and dysfunction, that promotes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation. Injury to the wall of the vein as a result of grafting leads to the production of chemoattractants, remodelling of the extracellular matrix and cell-cell contacts; which all contribute to the induction of VSMC migration and proliferation. This review focuses on the role of altered behaviour of VSMCs in the vein graft and some of the factors which critically lead to intimal thickening that predisposes the vein graft to further atherosclerosis and reoccurrence of symptoms in the patient.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)601–610
Number of pages10
JournalCardiovascular Research
Volume114
Issue number4
Early online date24 Jan 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2018

Keywords

  • Vascular smooth muscle cell
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Cadherin,
  • Vein graft

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