Seismic settlements of shallow foundations on liquefiable soil with a clay crust

Dimitris K. Karamitros, George D. Bouckovalas, Yannis K. Chaloulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


A simplified analytical methodology is presented for the computation of the seismic settlements of strip and rectangle footings resting on liquefiable soil with a clay crust. It is based on results of fully-coupled dynamic numerical analyses, performed with a critical-state constitutive model, and captures the physical mechanism of settlement accumulation, which is associated to a "sliding-block" type of punching failure through the clay crust and within the liquefied sand layer. More specifically, liquefaction-induced settlements are correlated to the seismic excitation characteristics and the post-shaking degraded static factor of safety, while the effect of shear-induced dilation of the liquefied subsoil is also taken into account. Analytical predictions are evaluated against experimental observations from centrifuge and large-scale experiments, as well as, against in-situ observations from the City of Adapazari, during the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake. Finally, easy to use, performance-based design (PBD) charts are developed for quick application of the proposed methodology in practice. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)64-76
Number of pages13
JournalSoil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013


  • Liquefaction
  • Shallow foundations
  • Settlements
  • Analytical methodology
  • Numerical analyses

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