The 3-D flexible thin shell theory is employed for the strain analysis of near-surface long cylindrical underground structures such as buried pipelines and thin-walled tunnels, against seismic Rayleigh wave propagation. Analytical solutions are initially derived separately for the normal and shear components of Rayleigh waves and are consequently superimposed over time, taking into account the spatial variation of strains over the cross-section. Design strains are finally established by maximizing the analytical expressions against the unknown, random angles of wave incidence. The proposed methodology is compared to the current state-of-practice, via application of the proposed relations to an example problem. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Rayleigh waves