Aim: To compare "selective duodenograms" performed through nasogastric tubes advanced into the proximal duodenum against traditional contrast studies regarding visualisation of a first-pass bolus distention of the duodenum and frequency of inconclusive results. Materials and methods: Retrospective comparison of "selective duodenograms" and traditional upper gastrointestinal contrast studies in neonates with bile-stained vomiting, regarding demonstration of the duodenal C-loop, first-pass bolus capture, degree of distention of the duodenum, and number of inconclusive studies. Statistical comparison was performed using the two-tailed Fishers exact and chi-squared tests. Results: There were 31 "selective duodenograms" and 70 traditional studies. The C-loop was demonstrated in 93% of traditional studies versus 100% in "selective duodenograms" and was demonstrated significantly more often during the first-pass (94% versus 73%; p=0.018) and more often with distention of the duodenum for "selective duodenography" (94% versus 56%, p<0.001). There were more inconclusive traditional studies (7% versus 3%; non-significant). Conclusion: Emergency upper gastrointestinal tract studies performed in neonates using the "selective duodenogram" technique demonstrated the duodenum with 100% success, with significantly more frequent first-pass bolus visualisation and duodenal distention than traditional studies. The five (7%) inconclusive traditional studies, present a significant diagnostic conundrum in the emergency setting because emergency surgery must be contemplated without proof.