Although being in control is an important aspect of human-machine
interaction, little is known about the combined effect of automation and mental
workload on the sense of agency. In this study, participants were asked to reproduce the time interval between a keypress and an acoustic tone presented with different time delays (1250 to 2250ms). Automation had three levels from the human being in complete control, an intermediate condition, to the machine being fully automatic. Mental workload was manipulated with a secondary memory task with two levels. Results showed a gradual loss of sense of agency with increasing automation intervention. Mental workload was found to affect only the intermediate automation condition. Further, we found an Intentional Binding effect for delays longer than 1750ms in this intermediate condition. These findings demonstrate the existence of a residual sense of agency, which has important implications for the future design of hybrid, semi-autonomous systems.
|Title of host publication||Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering - Proceedings of the AHFE 2021 Virtual Conferences on Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering, Industrial Cognitive Ergonomics and Engineering Psychology, and Cognitive Computing and Internet of Things, 2021|
|Editors||Hasan Ayaz, Umer Asgher, Lucas Paletta|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 4 Jul 2021|
|Name||Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems|
Acknowledgments. This material was funded and delivered in partnership between the Thales Group and the University of Bristol, and with the support of the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Grant Award EP/R004757/1 entitled ‘Thales-Bristol Partnership in Hybrid Autonomous Systems Engineering (T-B PHASE)’.
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.