Sensor Modalities and Fusion for Robust Indoor Localisation

Michal Kozlowski*, Raul Santos-Rodriguez, Robert J Piechocki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article (Academic Journal)peer-review

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The importance of accurate and efficient positioning and tracking is widely understood. However, there is a pressing lack of progress in the standardisation of methods, as well as generalised framework of their evaluation. The aim of this survey is to discuss the currently prevalent and emerging types of sensors used for location estimation. The intent of this review is to take account of this taxonomy and to provide a wider understanding of the current state-of-the-art. To that end, we outline various sensor modalities, as well as popular fusion and integration techniques, discussing how their combinations can help in various application settings. Firstly, we present the fundamental mechanics behind sensors employed by the localisation community. Furthermore we outline the formal theory behind prominent fusion methods
and provide exhaustive implementation examples of each. Finally, we provide points for future discussion regarding localisation sensing, fusion and integration methods.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere5
Number of pages23
JournalEAI Endorsed Transactions on Ambient Systems
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 12 Dec 2019


  • Localisation
  • Efficiency
  • Fusion
  • Robustness


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