Serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A are implicated in childhood pneumococcal para-pneumonic effusion (PPE). It is not known whether the same is true for adult PPE.
A prospective cohort study was conducted over a 2-year period. Consecutive adults admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were studied. Pneumococcal serotype was identified from urine samples using a multiplex immunoassay.
Of 920 patients recruited, 366 had pneumococcal CAP; 100 of these had PPE and a serotype was determined in 73 patients. Factors associated with PPE were age, pneumonia severity index score and serotype. Serotypes most associated with PPE were 1 (18 (45%) out of 40), 19A (9 (45%) out of 20) and 3 (8 (40%) out of 20). Serotypes common in childhood PPE were independently associated with adult PPE (adjusted OR 2.3; p=0.003). Serotypes not included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) were more likely to be associated with PPE (OR 2.1; p=0.024) compared with those in the vaccine. Serotypes included in PCV-13 were as likely to be associated with PPE as those that are not (OR 0.8; p=0.301).
Serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A are independently associated with adult PPE, a similar finding to childhood PPE. Serotype replacement following pneumococcal vaccine implementation may influence the spectrum of clinical disease.
- COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA
- CONJUGATE VACCINE
- PARAPNEUMONIC EFFUSIONS
- PREDICTION RULE
- PLEURAL FLUID