Abstract Few studies have investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), vitamin D supplement and asthma control among adults. We aimed to examine whether low levels of serum 25(OH)D or not taking vitamin D supplement were associated with an increased risk of poorly controlled asthma among Norwegian adults with asthma. We used a definition of asthma control adapted from the Global Initiative for Asthma. We first examined cross-sectional associations between serum 25(OH)D (n = 806) or vitamin D supplement (n = 1179) and poorly controlled asthma. Next, among those with well controlled asthma at baseline, we examined prospective associations between serum 25(OH)D (n = 147) or vitamin D supplement (n = 208) and poorly controlled asthma at follow-up, approximately 11 years later. We estimated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with Poisson regression. The adjusted RR for poorly controlled asthma was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89–1.13) for adults with serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L in cross-sectional and 1.50 (95% CI, 0.46–4.95) in prospective analyses. The adjusted RR for poorly controlled asthma was 1.17 (95% CI 1.00–1.37) for non-users of vitamin D supplement in cross-sectional and 1.66 (95% CI 0.49–5.67) in prospective analyses. Our study did not show strong evidence that among adults with asthma, having a low serum 25(OH)D or being a non-user of vitamin D supplement was associated with an increased risk of poorly controlled asthma. Some point estimates indicated an increased risk, however our estimates were generally imprecise and further evidence is needed.