Serum magnesium and risk of new onset heart failure in men: the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Study

Setor K Kunutsor*, Hassan Khan, Jari A. Laukkanen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

16 Citations (Scopus)
278 Downloads (Pure)


Serum magnesium is an essential intracellular cation involved in processes that regulate cardiovascular function and has been linked to the risk of several cardiovascular disease outcomes. We aimed to investigate the association of serum magnesium concentrations with risk of incident heart failure (HF). We studied 2181 middle-aged men without prevalent HF (aged 42–61 years) enrolled in the finnish Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study with serum magnesium measurements made at baseline. Hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals [CI]) for HF were assessed. During a median follow-up of 24.8 years, 278 HF events occurred. Baseline serum magnesium was weakly and inversely associated with several clinical markers and was continuously associated with risk of HF. The age-adjusted HR (95 % CIs) for HF per 1 standard deviation (SD) higher serum magnesium levels was 0.86 (0.76–0.97). The HR (95 % CIs) was 0.87 (0.76–0.98) after controlling for measures of adiposity, socio-economic variables, medical history, blood pressure, renal function, alcohol consumption, and lipids. These findings remained consistent in analyses accounting for incident coronary heart disease. The results were comparable across several clinically relevant subgroups and analyses with atrial fibrillation as a competing risk yielded similar results. Serum magnesium was continuously, inversely and independently associated with future risk of HF. Further research is needed to assess any potential relevance of serum magnesium in HF prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1035-1043
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number10
Early online date25 May 2016
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016


  • Heart failure
  • Risk factor
  • Serum magnesium

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