Sex-specific independent risk factors of urinary incontinence in acute stroke patients: a multi-centre registry-based cohort study

Adam Fluck, Chris H Fry, Brendan Affley, Puneet Kakar, Pankaj Sharma, David Fluck, Thang S Han*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review


The presence of urinary incontinence (UI) in acute stroke patients indicates poor outcomes in men and women. However, there is a paucity and inconsistency of data on UI risk factors in this group and hence we conducted a sex-specific analysis to identify risk factors.

Data were collected prospectively (2014–2016) from the Sentinel Stroke National Audit Program for patients admitted to four UK hyperacute stroke units. Relevant risk factors for UI were determined by stepwise multivariable logistic regression, presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

The mean (±SD) age of UI onset in men (73.9 year ± 13.1; n = 1593) was significantly earlier than for women (79.8 year ± 12.9; n = 1591: p < 0.001). Older age between 70 and 79 year in men (OR = 1.61: CI = 1.24–2.10) and women (OR = 1.55: CI = 1.12–2.15), or ≥80 year in men (OR = 2.19: CI = 1.71–2.81), and women (OR = 2.07: CI = 1.57–2.74)–reference: <70 year–both predicted UI. In addition, intracranial hemorrhage (reference: acute ischemic stroke) in men (OR = 1.64: CI = 1.22–2.20) and women (OR = 1.75: CI = 1.30–2.34); and prestroke disability (mRS scores ≥ 4) in men (OR = 1.90: CI = 1.02–3.5) and women (OR = 1.62: CI = 1.05–2.49) (reference: mRS scores < 4); and stroke severity at admission: NIHSS scores = 5–15 in men (OR = 1.50: CI = 1.20–1.88) and women (OR = 1.72: CI = 1.37–2.16), and NIHSS scores = 16–42 in men (OR = 4.68: CI = 3.20–6.85) and women (OR = 3.89: CI = 2.82–5.37) (reference: NIHSS scores = 0–4) were also significant. Factors not selected were: a history of congestive heart failure, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes and previous stroke.

We have identified similar risk factors for UI after stroke in men and women including age >70 year, intracranial hemorrhage, prestroke disability and stroke severity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)818-825
Number of pages8
JournalNeurourology and Urodynamics
Issue number4
Early online date7 Mar 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 7 Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.


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