The shape memory properties of hydrated Nafion ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators under combined thermal cycling and electrical shape fixing are presented and experimentally demonstrated. By exploiting these new properties the utility of such ionic actuators can be greatly enhanced to include bistability, multi-modal operation and increased actuation range. Shape memory effects were shown when the IPMC was deformed during programming by either an external force or by voltage-induced actuation. Comparison is made to the shape memory effects in hydrated raw Nafion membrane. It was observed that shape memory effects undergo slow decay, with different programming methods and subsequent electrical excitation exhibiting different decay profiles.
- Tactile Action Perception
- shape memory polymer