'Shocking' developments in chick embryology: electroporation and in ovo gene expression

N Itasaki, S Bel-Vialar, R Krumlauf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

285 Citations (Scopus)


Efficient gene transfer by electroporation of chick embryos in ovo has allowed the development of new approaches to the analysis of gene regulation, function and expression, creating an exciting opportunity to build upon the classical manipulative advantages of the chick embryonic system. This method is applicable to other vertebrate embryos and is an important tool with which to address cell and developmental biology questions. Here we describe the technical aspects of in ovo electroporation, its different applications and future perspectives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E203-E207
Number of pages5
JournalNature Cell Biology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1999


  • Animals
  • Chick Embryo
  • Chickens
  • Electroporation
  • Embryo, Mammalian
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Transfer Techniques
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Mice
  • Oocytes
  • Organ Specificity


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