Short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation mimicked in single inorganic synapses

Takeo Ohno, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Tohru Tsuruoka, Kazuya Terabe, James K Gimzewski, Masakazu Aono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

1381 Citations (Scopus)


Memory is believed to occur in the human brain as a result of two types of synaptic plasticity: short-term plasticity (STP) and long-term potentiation (LTP; refs 1-4). In neuromorphic engineering, emulation of known neural behaviour has proven to be difficult to implement in software because of the highly complex interconnected nature of thought processes. Here we report the discovery of a Ag(2)S inorganic synapse, which emulates the synaptic functions of both STP and LTP characteristics through the use of input pulse repetition time. The structure known as an atomic switch, operating at critical voltages, stores information as STP with a spontaneous decay of conductance level in response to intermittent input stimuli, whereas frequent stimulation results in a transition to LTP. The Ag(2)S inorganic synapse has interesting characteristics with analogies to an individual biological synapse, and achieves dynamic memorization in a single device without the need of external preprogramming. A psychological model related to the process of memorizing and forgetting is also demonstrated using the inorganic synapses. Our Ag(2)S element indicates a breakthrough in mimicking synaptic behaviour essential for the further creation of artificial neural systems that emulate characteristics of human memory.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)591-595
Number of pages5
JournalNature Materials
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011


  • Electric Stimulation
  • Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials
  • Long-Term Potentiation
  • Neuronal Plasticity
  • Silver Compounds
  • Synapses


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