Significance of non-stationary characteristics of ground-motion on structural damage: shaking table study

Mohammad M. Kashani*, Xiao Ge, Matthew S. Dietz, Adam J. Crewe, Nicholas A. Alexander

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
245 Downloads (Pure)


This paper reports the results of a set of benchmark medium-scale shaking table tests to investigate the significance of the non-stationary characteristics of ground-motion on nonlinear dynamic responses and the structural damage of reinforced concrete (RC) columns. To examine the influence of ground-motion characteristics, four RC columns are tested under (1) near-field without pulse, (2) near-field pulse-like, and (3) far-field ground-motions. These ground-motion records were spectrally matched by the reweighted Volterra series algorithm without changing non-ergodic characteristics. To explore the confinement effects, two sets of column specimens are designed to represent the modern well-confined and older lightly-confined RC columns. Each column is tested in slight, extensive and complete damage limit states. Then aftershock excitations are conducted to investigate the performance of severely damaged RC columns. Low amplitude white-noise tests are conducted on pristine columns and after each damage limit state experiment to detect natural frequency variant of damaged columns using transfer function estimate. Furthermore, using time–frequency analysis, the real-time variant frequency of test specimens is estimated. The significant duration of ground-motions accounting for the effect of non-stationary characteristics of ground-motion is also estimated by time-cumulative damage analysis of the test results. Finally, the time-variant stiffness degradation of RC columns is estimated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4885-4907
Number of pages23
JournalBulletin of Earthquake Engineering
Issue number9
Early online date13 Jun 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2019


  • Ground-motion duration
  • Inelastic buckling
  • Low-cycle fatigue
  • Shaking table
  • Time–frequency analysis
  • Transfer function estimate


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