Simulating maximal quantum entanglement without communication

N J Cerf, N Gisin, S Massar, S Popescu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

104 Citations (Scopus)


It is known that all causal correlations between two parties which output each 1 bit, a and b, when receiving each 1 bit, x and y, can be expressed as convex combinations of local correlations (i.e., correlations that can be simulated with local random variables) and nonlocal correlations of the form a+b=xy mod 2. We show that a single instance of the latter elementary nonlocal correlation suffices to simulate exactly all possible projective measurements that can be performed on a maximally entangled state of two qubits, with no communication needed at all. This elementary nonlocal correlation thus defines some unit of nonlocality, which we call a nl bit.

Translated title of the contributionSimulating maximal quantum entanglement without communication
Original languageEnglish
Article number220403
Pages (from-to)-
Number of pages4
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2005


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