Skeletal dosimetry based on mu CT images of trabecular bone: update and comparisons

R. Kramer*, V. F. Cassola, J. W. Vieira, H. J. Khoury, C. A. B. de Oliveira Lira, K. Robson Brown

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Two skeletal dosimetry methods using mu CT images of human bone have recently been developed: the paired-image radiation transport (PIRT) model introduced by researchers at the University of Florida (UF) in the US and the systematic-periodic cluster (SPC) method developed by researchers at the Federal University of Pernambuco in Brazil. Both methods use mu CT images of trabecular bone (TB) to model spongiosa regions of human bones containing marrow cavities segmented into soft tissue volumes of active marrow (AM), trabecular inactive marrow and the bone endosteum (BE), which is a 50 mu m thick layer of marrow on all TB surfaces and on cortical bone surfaces next to TB as well as inside the medullary cavities. With respect to the radiation absorbed dose, the AM and the BE are sensitive soft tissues for the induction of leukaemia and bone cancer, respectively. The two methods differ mainly with respect to the number of bone sites and the size of the mu CT images used in Monte Carlo calculations and they apply different methods to simulate exposure from radiation sources located outside the skeleton. The PIRT method calculates dosimetric quantities in isolated human bones while the SPC method uses human bones embedded in the body of a phantom which contains all relevant organs and soft tissues. Consequently, the SPC method calculates absorbed dose to the AM and to the BE from particles emitted by radionuclides concentrated in organs or from radiation sources located outside the human body in one calculation step. In order to allow for similar calculations of AM and BE absorbed doses using the PIRT method, the so-called dose response functions (DRFs) have been developed based on absorbed fractions (AFs) of energy for electrons isotropically emitted in skeletal tissues. The DRFs can be used to transform the photon fluence in homogeneous spongiosa regions into absorbed dose to AM and BE. This paper will compare AM and BE AFs of energy from electrons emitted in skeletal tissues calculated with the SPC and the PIRT method and AM and BE absorbed doses and AFs calculated with PIRT-based DRFs and with the SPC method. The results calculated with the two skeletal dosimetry methods agree well if one takes the differences between the two models properly into account. Additionally, the SPC method will be updated with larger mu CT images of TB.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3995-4021
Number of pages27
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jun 2012


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