Slow down: Behavioural and physiological effects of reducing eating rate

Katherine Hawton*, Danielle Ferriday, Peter Rogers, Paula Toner, Jonathan Brooks, Jeffrey Holly, Kalina Biernacka, Julian Hamilton-Shield, Elanor Hinton

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
246 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Slowing eating rate appears to be an effective strategy for reducing food intake. This feasibility study investigated the effect of eating rate on post-meal responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), plasma gastrointestinal hormone concentrations, appetite ratings, memory for recent eating, and snack consumption. Twenty-one participants (mean age 23 years with healthy body mass index) were randomly assigned to consume a 600 kcal meal at either a “normal” or “slow” rate (6 vs. 24 min). Immediately afterwards, participants rated meal enjoyment and satisfaction. FMRI was performed 2-h post-meal during a memory task about the meal. Appetite, peptide YY, and ghrelin were measured at baseline and every 30 min for 3 h. Participants were given an ad-libitum snack three hours post-meal. Results were reported as effect sizes (Cohen’s d) due to the feasibility sample size. The normal rate group found the meal more enjoyable (effect size = 0.5) and satisfying (effect size = 0.6). Two hours post-meal, the slow rate group reported greater fullness (effect size = 0.7) and more accurate portion size memory (effect sizes = 0.4), with a linear relationship between time taken to make portion size decisions and the BOLD response in satiety and reward brain regions. Ghrelin suppression post-meal was greater in the slow rate group (effect size = 0.8). Three hours post-meal, the slow rate group consumed on average 25% less energy from snacks (effect size = 0.5). These data offer novel insights about mechanisms underlying how eating rate affects food intake and have implications for the design of effective weight-management interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number50
Number of pages23
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number1
Early online date27 Dec 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

Structured keywords

  • Brain and Behaviour
  • Nutrition and Behaviour
  • Physical and Mental Health

Keywords

  • Appetite hormones
  • Eating rate
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  • Meal enjoyment
  • Memory for recent eating
  • Satiety

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  • NIHR BRC Nutrition

    Ness, A. R.

    1/04/1731/03/22

    Project: Research, Parent

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