We found social deprivation to be associated with higher mortality in the year following hip fracture among men and women aged 60 years and older in England. In those who did survive, deprivation was associated with longer hospital stays and greater risk of subsequent emergency readmission particularly for patients with dementia.Introduction
Social deprivation predicts a range of adverse health outcomes; however, its impact on outcomes following hip fracture is not established. We examined the effect of area-level social deprivation on outcomes following hospital admission for hip fracture in England.Methods
We used English Hospital Episodes Statistics linked to the National Hip Fracture Database (April 2011–March 2015) and Office for National Statistics mortality database, to identify patients aged 60+ years admitted with hip fracture. Deprivation was measured using Index of Multiple Deprivation quintiles; Q1-least deprived; Q5-most deprived, and outcomes by mortality over 1-year, length-of-stay in NHS acute and rehabilitation hospitals (‘superspell’), and emergency 30-day readmission.Results
We identified 218,907 admissions with an index hip fracture (mean age 82.8 [standard deviation, SD 8.4] years; 72.6% female). Each quintile of deprivation was associated with greater mortality; age-adjusted 30-day mortality odds ratio, OR 1.30 [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.24, 1.37], p < 0.001, equating to on average 1038 fewer deaths/year among those who are least deprived (Q1 versus 2–5). Similarly, at 365 days, those most deprived had 24% higher mortality (age-sex-comorbidity-adjusted OR:1.24 [1.20, 1.28], p < 0.001; Q5 versus Q1). Among survivors, mean superspell was longer in the most versus least deprived (Q5:24.4 [SD 21.7] days, Q1:23.3 [SD 22.1], p < 0.001). Readmission was more common in those most versus least deprived (age-sex-comorbidity-adjusted OR 1.27 [1.22, 1.32], p < 0.001).Conclusion
Greater deprivation is associated with reduced survival at all timepoints in the year following hip fracture. Among survivors, hospital stay is increased as is readmission risk. The extent to which configuration of English hospital services, rather than patient case-mix, explains these apparent health inequalities remains to be determined.
Bibliographical noteEmbargoed until 12 months after publication, but no publication date yet.
- Health inequality
- IMD - index of multiple deprivation
- Neck of femur
- Health outcomes