Socio-economic patterning of cardiometabolic risk factors in rural and peri-urban India: Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS)

Vipin Gupta, Christopher Millett, Gagandeep Kaur Walia, Sanjay Kinra, Aastha Aggarwal, Poornima Prabhakaran, Santhi Bhogadi, Aniket Kumar, Ruby Gupta, D Prabhakaran, K Srinath Reddy, George Davey Smith, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, K V Radha Krishna, Shah Ebrahim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

AIM: To assess the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors by socio-economic position (SEP) in rural and peri-urban Indian population.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 3,948 adults (1,154 households) from Telangana (2010-2012) was conducted to collect questionnaire-based data, physical measurements and fasting blood samples. We compared the prevalence of risk factors and their clustering by SEP adjusting for age using the Mantel Hansel test.

RESULTS: Men and women with no education had higher prevalence of increased waist circumference (men: 8 vs. 6.4 %, P < 0.001; women: 20.9 vs. 12.0 %, P = 0.01), waist-hip ratio (men: 46.5 vs. 25.8 %, P = 0.003; women: 58.8 vs. 29.2 %, P = 0.04) and regular alcohol intake (61.7 vs. 32.5 %, P < 0.001; women: 25.7 vs. 3.8 %, P < 0.001) than educated participants. Unskilled participants had higher prevalence of regular alcohol intake (men: 57.7 vs. 38.7 %, P = 0.001; women: 28.3 vs. 7.3 %, P < 0.001). In contrast, participants with a higher standard of living index had higher prevalence of diabetes (top third vs. bottom third: men 5.2 vs. 3.5 %, P = 0.004; women 5.5 vs. 2.4 %, P = 0.003), hyperinsulinemia (men 29.5 vs. 16.3 %, P = 0.002; women 31.1 vs. 14.3 %, P < 0.001), obesity (men 23.3 vs. 10.6 %, P < 0.001; women 25.9 vs. 12.8 %, P < 0.001), and raised LDL (men 16.8 vs. 11.4 %, P = 0.001; women 21.3 vs. 14.0 %, P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Cardiometabolic risk factors are common in rural India but do not show a consistent association with SEP except for higher prevalence of smoking and regular alcohol intake in lower SEP group. Strategies to address the growing burden of cardiometabolic diseases in urbanizing rural India should be assessed for their potential impact on social inequalities in health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-136
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Public Health (Germany)
Volume23
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 May 2015

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