Somalia, fragmented hybrid governance and inclusive development

Eric Herring*, Latif Ismail, Aoife McCullough, Muyhadin Saed

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter in a book

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Somalia is a long way from coherent hybrid governance or inclusive development. Somaliland has achieved more in terms of integrating traditional and modern governance, but this has not been converted into much in the way of inclusive development or even exclusive development. Instead, in both cases, elite capture of rents predominates. This indicates that we need to aim for more than coherent governance. Our argument incorporates and goes beyond the notion of overcoming “limited statehood.” We reject the idea of hybrid governance as a deviant form of governance that necessarily has to be re-ordered and corrected. Instead, we see the practice of hybrid governance as a normal feature of political systems, and which, over time, may work to reinforce or move away from hybridity. Instead of seeking to overcome limited statehood and forms of hybridity, we suggest exploring manifestations of hybridity to look for ways in which non-state actors can be incentivised to be more accountable. Overall, if progress is to be made towards more coherent governance (whether with a greater or lesser degree of traditional-modern hybridity) and inclusive development in Somalia, it will be the outcome of dynamic and unpredictable relational changes between state and non-state actors rather than the implementation of a top-down master plan.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLimited Statehood and Informal Governance in the Middle East and Africa
EditorsRuth Santini, Abel Polese, Rob Kevlihan
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9780429504570
ISBN (Print)9781138586468
Publication statusPublished - 9 Oct 2020


  • Somalia
  • hybrid
  • governance
  • inclusive
  • development


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