The mechanistic (or mammalian) Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism. By integrating mitogenic signals, mTORC1-dependent phosphorylation of substrates dictates the balance between anabolic, pro-growth and catabolic, recycling processes in the cell. The discovery that amino acids activate mTORC1 by promoting its translocation to the lysosome was a fundamental advance in the understanding of mTORC1 signalling. It has since become clear that the lysosome-cytoplasm shuttling of m0TORC1 represents just one layer of spatial control of this signalling pathway. This review will focus on exploring the subcellular localisation of mTORC1 and its regulators to multiple sites within the cell. We will discuss how these spatially distinct regions such as endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and the endosomal pathw ay co-operate to transduce nutrient availability to mTORC1, allowing for tight control of cell growth.
- Amino acids
- Endoplasmic reticulum