Species interactions regulate the collapse of biodiversity and ecosystem function in tropical forest fragments

Tom P. Bregman, Alexander C. Lees, Nathalie Seddon, Hannah E.A. Macgregor, Bianca Darski, Alexandre Aleixo, Michael B. Bonsall, Joseph A. Tobias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Competitive interactions among species with similar ecological niches are known to regulate the assembly of biological communities. However, it is not clear whether such forms of competition can predict the collapse of communities and associated shifts in ecosystem function in the face of environmental change. Here, we use phylogenetic and functional trait data to test whether communities of two ecologically important guilds of tropical birds (frugivores and insectivores) are structured by species interactions in a fragmented Amazonian forest landscape. In both guilds, we found that forest patch size, quality, and degree of isolation influence the phylogenetic and functional trait structure of communities, with small, degraded, or isolated forest patches having an increased signature of competition (i.e., phylogenetic and functional trait overdispersion in relation to null models). These results suggest that local extinctions in the context of fragmentation are nonrandom, with a consistent bias toward more densely occupied regions of niche space. We conclude that the loss of biodiversity in fragmented landscapes is mediated by niche-based competitive interactions among species, with potentially far-reaching implications for key ecosystem processes, including seed dispersal and plant damage by phytophagous insects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2692-2704
Number of pages13
JournalEcology
Volume96
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 by the Ecological Society of America.

Copyright:
Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Avian communities
  • Biodiversity conservation
  • Community disassembly
  • Diet and morphology
  • Ecosystem services
  • Fragmentation
  • Functional traits
  • Habitat filtering
  • Interspecific competition
  • Limiting similarity
  • Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Tropical rain forest

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