The rates of ureteric obstruction and complications for use of externally draining uretero-vesico-cutaneous (external) stents (Group 1: n=39) and the use of internal uretero-vesical (double-J) stents (Group 2: n=16), in 55 of 64 consecutive paediatric renal-transplant recipients, performed at our institution between January 1996 and December 2003, have been compared. Serum creatinine levels pre and post-operatively and pre and post-stent removal were recorded. The diagnosis of ureteric obstruction was based on an increase in serum creatinine of 20%, in conjunction with ultrasound evidence of hydronephrosis or hydroureter, where other causes of renal dysfunction were excluded. Ureteric obstruction occurred in 13 of the 39 patients (33.3%) in Group 1, compared with only one case of ureteric obstruction in the 16 patients (6.25%) in Group 2 (OR=7.5, 95% CI=0.8â€“70, P=0.038). There was no evidence of a difference in the number of urinary tract infections (9/39 in Group 1, 6/16 in Group 2, OR=0.5, 95% CI=0.14 to 1.8, P=0.275) or the mean length of hospital stay (10.9 days in Group 1, 10.1 days in Group 2, 95% CI=â€“2.3 to 4 days, P=0.565) between the two groups. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) improved in the week after stent removal in Group 2, but deteriorated in Group 1 (P=0.07). This non-randomised comparison of stent types supports the use of prophylactic double-J stents in paediatric renal transplantation- in terms of decreased ureteric complications and improved renal function post-stent removal.