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Studies of Black Diamond as an antibacterial surface for Gram Negative bacteria: the interplay between chemical and mechanical bactericidal activity

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Studies of Black Diamond as an antibacterial surface for Gram Negative bacteria : the interplay between chemical and mechanical bactericidal activity. / Dunseath, Olivia; Smith, Edmund; Al-Jeda, Tarik; Smith, James; King, Sophie; May, Paul; Nobbs, Angela; Hazell, Gavin; Welch, Colin; Su, Bo.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 9, No. 1, 8815, 01.12.2019.

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@article{ca510efcb1aa4915862a0672c909891f,
title = "Studies of Black Diamond as an antibacterial surface for Gram Negative bacteria: the interplay between chemical and mechanical bactericidal activity",
abstract = "‘Black silicon’ (bSi) samples with surfaces covered in nanoneedles of length ~5 µm were fabricated using a plasma etching process and then coated with a conformal uniform layer of diamond using hot filament chemical vapour deposition to produce ‘black diamond’ (bD) nanostructures. The diamond needles were then chemically terminated with H, O, NH2 or F using plasma treatment, and the hydrophilicity of the resulting surfaces were assessed using water droplet contact-angle measurements, and scaled in the order O > H ≈NH2 >F, with the F-terminated surface being superhydrophobic. The effectiveness of these differently terminated bD needles in killing the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli was semi-quantified by Live/Dead staining and fluorescence microscopy, and visualised by environmental scanning electron microscopy. The total number of adhered bacteria was consistent for all the nanostructured bD surfaces at around 50{\%} of the value for the flat diamond control. This, combined with a chemical bactericidal effect of 20-30{\%}, shows that the nanostructured bD surfaces supported significantly fewer viable E. coli than flat surfaces. Moreover, the bD surfaces were particularly effective at preventing the establishment of bacterial aggregates – a precursor to biofilm formation. The percentage of dead bacteria also decreased as a function of hydrophilicity. These results are consistent with a predominantly mechanical mechanism for bacteria death based on the stretching and disruption of the cell membrane, combined with an additional effect from the chemical nature of the surface.",
keywords = "black diamond, black silicon, antimicrobial surface",
author = "Olivia Dunseath and Edmund Smith and Tarik Al-Jeda and James Smith and Sophie King and Paul May and Angela Nobbs and Gavin Hazell and Colin Welch and Bo Su",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1038/s41598-019-45280-2",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
journal = "Scientific Reports",
issn = "2045-2322",
publisher = "Springer Nature",
number = "1",

}

RIS - suitable for import to EndNote

TY - JOUR

T1 - Studies of Black Diamond as an antibacterial surface for Gram Negative bacteria

T2 - the interplay between chemical and mechanical bactericidal activity

AU - Dunseath, Olivia

AU - Smith, Edmund

AU - Al-Jeda, Tarik

AU - Smith, James

AU - King, Sophie

AU - May, Paul

AU - Nobbs, Angela

AU - Hazell, Gavin

AU - Welch, Colin

AU - Su, Bo

PY - 2019/12/1

Y1 - 2019/12/1

N2 - ‘Black silicon’ (bSi) samples with surfaces covered in nanoneedles of length ~5 µm were fabricated using a plasma etching process and then coated with a conformal uniform layer of diamond using hot filament chemical vapour deposition to produce ‘black diamond’ (bD) nanostructures. The diamond needles were then chemically terminated with H, O, NH2 or F using plasma treatment, and the hydrophilicity of the resulting surfaces were assessed using water droplet contact-angle measurements, and scaled in the order O > H ≈NH2 >F, with the F-terminated surface being superhydrophobic. The effectiveness of these differently terminated bD needles in killing the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli was semi-quantified by Live/Dead staining and fluorescence microscopy, and visualised by environmental scanning electron microscopy. The total number of adhered bacteria was consistent for all the nanostructured bD surfaces at around 50% of the value for the flat diamond control. This, combined with a chemical bactericidal effect of 20-30%, shows that the nanostructured bD surfaces supported significantly fewer viable E. coli than flat surfaces. Moreover, the bD surfaces were particularly effective at preventing the establishment of bacterial aggregates – a precursor to biofilm formation. The percentage of dead bacteria also decreased as a function of hydrophilicity. These results are consistent with a predominantly mechanical mechanism for bacteria death based on the stretching and disruption of the cell membrane, combined with an additional effect from the chemical nature of the surface.

AB - ‘Black silicon’ (bSi) samples with surfaces covered in nanoneedles of length ~5 µm were fabricated using a plasma etching process and then coated with a conformal uniform layer of diamond using hot filament chemical vapour deposition to produce ‘black diamond’ (bD) nanostructures. The diamond needles were then chemically terminated with H, O, NH2 or F using plasma treatment, and the hydrophilicity of the resulting surfaces were assessed using water droplet contact-angle measurements, and scaled in the order O > H ≈NH2 >F, with the F-terminated surface being superhydrophobic. The effectiveness of these differently terminated bD needles in killing the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli was semi-quantified by Live/Dead staining and fluorescence microscopy, and visualised by environmental scanning electron microscopy. The total number of adhered bacteria was consistent for all the nanostructured bD surfaces at around 50% of the value for the flat diamond control. This, combined with a chemical bactericidal effect of 20-30%, shows that the nanostructured bD surfaces supported significantly fewer viable E. coli than flat surfaces. Moreover, the bD surfaces were particularly effective at preventing the establishment of bacterial aggregates – a precursor to biofilm formation. The percentage of dead bacteria also decreased as a function of hydrophilicity. These results are consistent with a predominantly mechanical mechanism for bacteria death based on the stretching and disruption of the cell membrane, combined with an additional effect from the chemical nature of the surface.

KW - black diamond

KW - black silicon

KW - antimicrobial surface

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85067816997&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/s41598-019-45280-2

DO - 10.1038/s41598-019-45280-2

M3 - Article

C2 - 31217508

AN - SCOPUS:85067816997

VL - 9

JO - Scientific Reports

JF - Scientific Reports

SN - 2045-2322

IS - 1

M1 - 8815

ER -