Surgery of the female genital tract, in the form of routine neutering, is one of the most common procedures performed in small animal practice. Consequently, diseases of the ovaries and uterus are relatively rare. Pyometra is frequently seen in practice, but some readers may be unfamiliar with other conditions, which can be diagnostically challenging. This article describes the common and less common conditions affecting the ovaries and uterus and highlights their diagnosis and treatment. An article, to be published in the next issue of In Practice, will describe surgical diseases of the vagina and external genitalia.