Test-Takers’ Cognitive Processes during a Listen-To-Summarize Cloze Task

Haiping Wang, Guoxing Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
344 Downloads (Pure)


Listen-to-summarize cloze (LSC) tasks are not rare in high-stakes language tests; however, we know little about what test-takers do during the tasks. In our study, we examined 16 students’ think-aloud protocols (TAPs) which were recorded while they were completing two LSC tasks. The analysis of the 16 TAPs indicated iterative cognitive processes of LSC task completion. Simultaneously, the different gap types in the LSC tasks required different levels of cognitive processes. We also discussed the possible cognitive depth to which LSC tasks can target and the challenges in designing appropriate gap types to assess different levels of cognitive processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-28
Number of pages28
JournalInternational Journal of Listening
Issue number1
Early online date5 Jun 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
©, Copyright © International Listening Association.


  • academic lectures
  • cognitive processes
  • listen-to-summarize cloze (LSC)
  • listening comprehension
  • think-aloud protocol (TAP)


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