Projects per year
Subject/Methods: Cross-sectional survey of adult men (n=3322) and nonpregnant women (n=2895) aged 18 years and older from the third wave of the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study that assessed anemia, overweight based on body mass index, and prevalence of MetS based on abdominal obesity, hypertension and blood lipid and fasting glucose measures. We examined associations of education, wealth and urbanicity with these outcomes and their co-occurrence.
Results: The prevalence of anemia and overweight was 40% and 29% among women, respectively, and 10% and 25% among men (P<0.001), respectively, whereas the prevalence of MetS was the same across sexes (15%; P=0.55). The prevalence of concurrent anemia and overweight (9%), and anemia and MetS (4.5%) was highest among women. Household wealth was positively associated with overweight and MetS across sexes (P<0.05). Independent of household wealth, higher education was positively correlated with MetS among men (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): MetS: 1.4 (0.99, 2.0)) and negatively correlated with MetS among women (MetS: 0.54 (0.29, 0.99)). Similar sex-specific associations were observed for the co-occurrence of anemia with overweight and MetS.
Conclusions: Women in this region of India may be particularly vulnerable to co-occurring anemia and cardiometabolic risk, and associated adverse health outcomes as the nutrition transition advances in India.